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Myopia Control Management


Myopia is also called short-sightedness and near-sightedness. It is a common vision condition in which near objects appear clear but objects farther away look blurry. It occurs when the shape of the eye or its optical components causes light rays to bend (refract) inaccurately. Light rays that should be focused on the retina (nerve tissues at the back of the eye) are focused in front of it.

Myopia usually develops during childhood and adolescence, and it usually becomes more stable between the ages of 20 and 40.

A standard eye examination can confirm simple myopia. However, the latest specialty comprehensive myopia examination is needed for complex cases and myopia control.

                                                                                                           Perfect Vision



                       -1.00D Myopia                                                      -6.00D Myopia




Myopia is classified according to the degree of myopia, that is the power of the prescription lens required to correct the blurred vision, measured in dioptres (D). The higher the myopia, the greater the physical elongation of the eyeball.

Low myopia              -0.50 to -3.00
Moderate myopia    -3.00 to -6.00
High myopia*           -6.00 or above               (*World Health Organisation (WHO) defined high myopia with -5.00 or above)
​Extreme myopia      -10.00 or above

​​In some Asian countries, such as Hong Kong, the amount of myopia may be specified in 'degrees' (度). For instance, -6.00 is referred as 600 degrees of myopia (600 度近視).


The causes of myopia are complex and multifactorial and vary between individuals, including genetics, environmental and individual factors. Myopia is associated with eyeball elongation. Specialty myopia comprehensive examinations are needed to diagnose and manage myopia for the best outcome.


  • Myopic parents

  • Ethnicity


  • Modern society and lifestyle - ​educational cultures, excessive near visual tasks, lack of outdoor activities, compact living spaces



  • Eye teaming issues - focusing inaccuracy and inefficiency, eye muscles alignment​

  • Hobbies at near

  • Time spent on outdoor daytime

As urbanisation, education and constant use of digital technology in everyday life from a young age developed in the society, the human eye has not evolved and kept up with these rapid changes. Therefore, myopia in children and young adults rise dramatically. Myopia is becoming such a worldwide problem that eye experts and researchers describe it as "The Myopia Epidemic".


  • Delayed visual correction - parent or patient unawareness or denial, patient hiding symptoms

    • Highly recommend routinely tested from age 3 onward, every 6-12 months regardless of whether they complain of a blur

  • Under-correction of myopia - obsolete unproven thinking or fallacy

  • Wearing incorrect prescription or lens type

    • Prescribed by general optometrists - without specialty knowledge, skill and equipment for myopia control

    • Declined vital tests - e.g., specialty myopia comprehensive examination, “focus-relaxing” eye drop vision test.


  • Wearing traditional glasses and/or contact lenses​

    • ​Lack of understanding from parents about the importance of myopia control to minimise the risk of serious visual impairment

    • Lack of finance​


  • The rates of myopia are growing at an alarming rate – especially among children – and this is more than just a vision issue, it is a major eye health issue.

  • Many patients and parents view myopia as a simple inconvenience, but it is much more than that. It can lead to exponentially increased risk of serious vision complications. 

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